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Bursa ilinin ingilizce tanıtımı

Bursa ilinin ingilizce tanıtımı
Bursa (historically also known as Prusa, Greek: Προύσσα, and later as Brusa) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the seat of Bursa Province. With a population of 1,562,828 (2007),[1] it is Turkey’s fourth largest city, as well as one of the most industrialized and culturally charged metropolitan centers in the country.

The city is frequently cited as “Yeşil Bursa” (meaning “Green Bursa”) in a reference to the beautiful parks and gardens located across its urban tissue, as well as to the vast forests in rich variety that extend in its surrounding region. The city is synonymous with the mountain Uludağ which towers behind the city core and which is also a famous ski resort. The mausoleums of early Ottoman sultans are located in Bursa and the numerous edifices built throughout the Ottoman period constitute the city’s main landmarks. The surrounding fertile plain, its thermal baths, several interesting museums, notably a rich museum of archaeology, and a rather orderly urban growth are further principal elements that complete Bursa’s overall picture.

Karagöz and Hacivat shadow play characters were historic personalities who lived and are buried in Bursa. Bursa is also home to some of the most famous Turkish dishes, especially candied chestnuts and İskender kebap. Its peaches are also well-renowned. Among its depending district centers, İznik, historic Nicaea, is especially notable for its long history and important edifices. Bursa is home to Uludağ University, and its population attains one of the highest overall levels of education in Turkey. It has traditionally been a pole of attraction and of refuge for immigration into Turkey from the Balkans, in sizable waves at times until quite recently.

History
The earliest known site at this location was Cius, which Philip V of Macedonia granted to the Bithynian king Prusias I in 202 BC, for his help against Pergamum and Heraclea Pontica (modern Karadeniz Ereğli). Prusias renamed the city after himself, as Prusa.

It was later a major city, located on the westernmost end of the famous Silk Road, and was the capital of the Ottoman Empire following its capture from the shrinking Byzantine Empire in 1326. The capture of Edirne in 1365 brought that city to the fore as well, but Bursa remained an important administrative and commercial center even after it lost its status as the sole capital. During the Ottoman rule, Bursa was the source of most royal silk products. Aside from the local production, it imported raw silk from Iran, and occasionally China, and was the ‘factory’ for the kaftans, pillows, embroidery and other silk products for the royal palaces up through the 17th century. Another traditional occupation is knife making and, historically, horse carriage building. Nowadays one can still find hand-made knives as well as other products in rich variety produced by artisans, but instead of carriages, there is a big automobile industry.

Bursa sits on a geologic fault like most of Turkey. The city was partially leveled by strong earthquakes coupled with fires and was rebuilt after each time. The last devastating earthquake occurred in 1885.

Economy
Bursa is the toe of Turkey’s automobile industry. FIAT and Renault have for decades had important production units in Bursa. The textile and food industries are equally strong, and Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola, and other beverages brands, as well as fresh and canned food industries are present in the city’s organized industrial zones.

Traditionally, Bursa was famous for its fertile soil and agricultural activities, both of which are decreasing due to the heavy industrialization of the city.

Bursa is also a major tourist center: One of the best ski resorts of Turkey is located at Uludağ just next to city proper. Its thermal baths have been used for therapeutical purposes since Roman times. Apart from baths operated by hotels, Uludağ University has a physical therapy center which also makes use of thermal water.

Education
Uludağ University is located in Bursa and is a prominent university in Turkey’s Marmara Region. It was founded in 1975, first under the name Bursa Üniversity, then re-named Uludağ Üniversity in 1982. In the 2005-06 academic year, the university had a student body of 47,000.

Sports
Bursa has a professional soccer team, Bursaspor, that plays in the Turkcell Super League. They are known as the “Yeşil Timsahlar” (“Green Alligators”) and play their home matches at Bursa Atatürk stadium.

The city of Bursa is preparing to apply for the 2018 Winter Olympics to be held in Uludağ.

Places of Interest
A brief list of places of interest in and around Bursa is presented below. For a longer list, see Places of interest in Bursa.

* Irgandi covered bridge. See photo on “TrekEarth nadirfotograf”
* Yeşil Cami or the Green mosque
* Uludağ National Park
* Bursa city walls
* Hot springs;
o Çekirge
o Armutlu
o Oylat
o Gemlik
* Beaches;
o Armutlu
o Kumla
o Kurşunlu
* Palace and Hipogeum
o Orhan Mosque and complex
o Muradiye complex
o Yeşil complex
o Bayezid I Mosque and complex (külliye)
o Emir Sultan Mosque and complex (külliye)
o Hüdavendigar complex
o Koca Sinan Paşa complex
o İshak Paşa complex
o Bursa Grand Mosque
o Karacabey Grand Mosque
* Yıldırım Bazaar
* Museums;
o Bursa Archeology Museum
o Bursa City Museum
o Bursa Atatürk Museum
o Bursa Turkish Architecture Museum
o Islamic Works Museum
o Mudanya Armistice
o İznik Museum
* Cumalıkızık village

Ulu Camii (The Great Mosque)
Ulu Camii is the major mosque of Bursa and a landmark of early Ottoman architecture. It was built by Ali Neccar in 1396-1399, at Sultan Bayezid I’s command. The mosque is large and rectangular, with twenty domes arranged in four rows of five supported by twelve columns. Supposedly twenty domes are built instead of twenty separate mosques that Sultan Bayezid I promised for winning the Battle of Nicopolis. It has two minarets. Inside the mosque there are 192 monumental wall inscriptions written by famous calligraphers. There is also a fountain (şadırvan) inside the mosque where worshipers can perform ritual ablutions before prayer; the dome over the şadırvan is capped by a skylight, creating a soft, serene light below. The story of the şadırvan inside the mosque, which is unheard of, that the land belong to an old lady who objected to her store taken by padişah. Because consent is not given for the piece of land, prayer cannot be conducted on it thus a şadırvan is built. Architecturally şadırvan helps to have light inside the mosque that is big.

The horizontally spacious and dimly lit interior is designed to feel peaceful and contemplative. The subdivisions of space formed by multiple domes and pillars create a sense of privacy and even intimacy. This atmosphere contrasts with later Ottoman mosques (see for example the work of Süleyman I’s chief architect Sinan). These later mosques have increasingly elevated central domes, which create a vertical emphasis that is intended to be more overwhelming, in order to convey the power and majesty of the Ottoman Empire. It is a beautiful piece of architecture.

Notable residents
* Adnan Şenses- singer
* Ata Demirer- comedian
* Behice Boran- the leader of the socialist Workers Party of Turkey
* Burcu Kara- actress, model
* Celal Bayar- former Turkish president
* Emre Aşık- international footballer
* Erdal Özyağcılar- actor
* Erkan Can- actor
* Hamit Şare- olympic skier
* Hande Ataizi- actress
* Halil Ergün- actor
* İlhan İrem- singer
* Manolis Andronikos (1919-1992) Greek archaeologist
* Muazzez İlmiye Çığ- archaeologist
* Nur Sürer- actress
* Olgun Şimşek- actor
* Özhan Canaydın- former basketball player, businessman and the current chairman of Galatasaray
* Pınar Kür- author
* Qādī Zāda al-Rūmī- astronomer and mathematician
* Sabiha Gökçen- the first Turkish female aviator and the first female combat pilot in the world
* Serdar Kurtuluş- international footballer
* Sporus of Nicaea- Greek mathematician and astronomer
* Suzan Avcı- actress
* Tarık Tarcan- actor
* Vildan Atasever- actress
* Yıldırım Gürses- actor, composer
* Zeki Müren- wellknown singer, “sun of art”
* Melihcan CEYLAN- doctor
* Muhammed Fatih ERDEM- Architect

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