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Erzurum ilinin ingilizce tanıtımı

Erzurum ilinin ingilizce tanıtımı
Erzurum Province
The Province of Erzurum (Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. It is surrounded by Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast. The capital is the city of Erzurum.

Districts
* Aşkale
* Çat
* Erzurum
* Hınıs
* Horasan
* Ilıca
* İspir
* Karaçoban
* Karayazı
* Köprüköy
* Narman
* Oltu
* Olur
* Pasinler
* Pazaryolu
* Şenkaya
* Tekman
* Tortum
* Uzundere

Geography
The surface area of the province of Erzurum is the fourth biggest in Turkey. The majority of the province is elevated. Most plateaus are about 2,000 m (6,500 ft) high from sea level, and the mountainous regions beyond the plateaus are 3,000 m (9,800 ft) and higher. Depression plains are located between the mountains and plateaus. The southern mountain ranges are Palandöken Mountains (highest peak Büyük Ejder 3,176 m high) and Şahveled Mountains (highest peak Çakmak Mountain 3,063 m high). The northern mountain ranges are the second row elevations of the North Anatolian Mountains, i.e. Mescit Mountains (highest peak 3,239 m), Kargapazarı Mountains (highest peak 3,169 m) and Allahuekber Mountains. The two depression plains between these mountainous areas are Erzurum Plains and Hasankale Plains.

Continental climate rules in the province with long and harsh winters, and short and mild summers. The lowest temperature average is -8.6 °C (16 °F) and the highest average temperature is 19.6 °C (67 °F). Yearly average precipitation is 453 mm. Snow falls for 50 days and stays for about 114 days.

Steppe formations are prevalent in the geography, occupying about 60% of the surface area, much of it fertile. Forest areas are not large mainly consisting of scots pines and oaks.

Eastern part of the province is in the basin of the Aras river, the western part in the Karasu (Western Euphrates) basin, and the northern part in the Çoruh basin.

There are a few natural lakes in the province, the major one being Lake Tortum (approximately 8 km²) fed by the Tortum (Uzundere) Falls. A hydroelectric power plant built in 1963 is on the inlet of this lake. There are three artificial lakes in the province.

History
The region is known to have been inhabited since the Hittites. The city comprises one of the historical regions of Armenia and an Armenian community dominated the area until the Armenian Genocide of 1915. Most of the province was incorporated to the Roman Empire in 4th Century who founded a city called Erzen. The Byzantine Empire also built a city in the region, called Theodosiopolis, which was on the border. Standing on the crossroads of main trade routes in Asia Minor, the area was a center of importance for Persians and Arabs who frequently clashed with the Byzantine Empire. The city was also part of the Armenian kingdom of Tayk in the 10th century. Threatened by, devastated and looted by the Seljuk Turks in 1049, the older city of Erzen was conquered, but Theodosioolis survived the invasion. The ruling dynasty of the time was that of the Saltukids.

Theodosiopolis repelled many attacks and military campaigns by the Sel**** and Georgians until 1201 when the city and the province was conquered by the Seljuk sultan Süleiman II of Rüm in 1201. Erzen-Erzurum fell to the Mongol siege in 1242, and the city was looted and devastated. After the fall of the Seljuk Sultanate of Anatolia (Rüm) in early 14th Century, it became an administrative province of the Ilkhanates, and after their fall, became part of the Çoban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, Mongols lead by Timur Lenk and White Sheep Turkmen. Finally, in 1514 the region was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.

During the Ottoman reign, the city served as the main base of Ottoman military power in the region. Early in 1600s, the province was threatened by Iran and a revolt by the province governor Abaza Mehmed Pasha. This revolt was combined with Jelali Revolts (the uprising of the provincial musketeers called the Celali), backed by Iran and lasted until 1628.

The city was conquered by the Russian army in 1829, given back to the Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne). The poet Alexander Pushkin accompanied the Russian commander-in-chief, Ivan Paskevich, during that expedition and penned a brief account of the campaign. The city was again assaulted by the Russian army in the last Russo-Turkish War in 1877.

The province was the site of the major fighting during Caucasus Campaign of World War I between Russian and Ottoman forces including the key confrontation of the campaign, Battle of Erzurum which resulted in capture of Erzurum by Russian army under command of Grand Duke Nicholas on February 16, 1916. It was returned to the Ottomans with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. Erzurum was also a main Turkish base during the Turkish War of Independence. It was declared a province of Turkey in 1924.

Economy
Approximately 18.5% of the total surface area is arable land, of which about 75% has permanent crops. A large portion of the agricultural produce consists of cereals. Forest areas are a total of 8.8% of the surface area, and forestry is also an industry. Industries largely consist of manufacturing of forestry, agriculture, husbandry, chemistry, textile and mining products. There are 81 active industrial plants in the province, most of them located at the central district of Erzurum, and are small and medium enterprises. Due to their relatively small sizes, these industries serve mainly to local markets causing lower capacity usage, low productivity and unemployment. About 40 plants are currently out of use, mostly due to high operation costs.

The province of Erzurum has the highest ratio of meadows and pastures in Turkey, ideal for stockbreeding. However, once the main occupation of the population, animal husbandry lost its importance in 1980s with the introduction of liberal economy and importation. A large organized industrial park concentrating on processing meat is being built with the hopes of reviving this sector. Food products include beekeeping and trout farming too.

Underground resources include lead, copper, chromium, and zinc which are of low tenure or have their reserves almost exhausted. There is considerable amount of lignite, however because its ash and sulfur ratios are high, it only has industrial use. Magnesite, fire clay, gypsum, manganese, diatomite, marble, rock salt and perlite are also present. The few natural geothermal resources, except one, are not suitable for economic investments, and they are used as natural springs.

GDP of the province of Erzurum is USD 1.16 billion, constituting less than 1% of the total and ranking 40th among Turkish provinces (1997 values).

Transportation is possible through paved and unpaved highways. The Erzurum international airport is open to use also to the Turkish Air Forces. The runways of this airport are the second longest in Turkey. Erzurum is also the main railroad hub in the Eastern Anatolia region.

The largest economy, in recent years, has been the university. Atatürk University is one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand students. Tourism, also, provides a large proportion of the province’s income. Tourist activities include skiing, rafting and mountaineering. Skiing activities are centred on Palandöken Mountain.

Erzurum
Erzurum is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The name “Erzurum” derives from “Arz-e Rum” (literally The border of the Romans in Persian).

Erzurum has a population of 361,235 (2000 census). It is the capital of Erzurum Province, the largest province in Turkey’s Eastern Anatolia Region. The city is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet) above sea level and has an extreme continental climate with an average January temperature of −11 °C (12.2 °F). Temperatures often drop below −30 °C (−22.0 °F) in the winter, with heavy snowfall.

Erzurum, known as “The Rock” in NATO code, has served as NATO’s southeasternmost air force post during the Cold War.

The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif based on the double-headed Byzantine Eagle that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period.

History
Erzurum existed since the ancient times as Karin and belonged to Armenia[1].

The town was known in Byzantine times as Theodosiopolis, acquiring its present name only after its final Muslim conquest following the battle of Manzikert.

Saltuklus were an Anatolian Turkish Beylik centered in Erzurum, who ruled between 1071 to 1202. Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200.

The city was captured by Russia in 1829, but given back to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne). During the Crimean war Russian forces approached Erzurum, but did not attack it because of insufficient forces and the continuing Russian siege of Kars. The city was attacked and, after overcoming strong resistance, captured by a Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, but was returned to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of San Stefano.

There were massacres of the city’s Armenian citizens during the Hamidian massacres (1894-1896).[2][3] [4] It was also a major extermination and deportation center during the Armenian Genocide of 1915.[5] The deportation route for the Armenians of Erzurum and neighbouring areas in eastern Anatolia went through the city of Harput.[6]

The city was the location of one of the key battles in the Caucasus Campaign of World War I between the armies of the Ottoman and Russian Empires which resulted in capture of Erzurum by Russian forces under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich on February 16, 1916. It was returned to the Ottomans with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, one of the founders of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in Erzurum, and was declared the “Honorary Native” and the freeman of the city, which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate (Nüfus Cuzdanı) of the new Turkish Republic. The Erzurum Congress of 1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of Independence.

Economy
The largest economy, in recent years, has been the university. Atatürk University is one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand students. Tourism, also, provides a large proportion of the province’s income.

Erzurum is notable for the small-scale production of objects crafted from Oltu stone: most are sold as souvenirs and include prayer beads, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips.

Tourism
Little of medieval Erzurum survives beyond scattered individual buildings such as the citadel fortress, and the Çifte Minareli Medrese.

Six kilometres to the south of the center of Erzurum is an important skiing center on the Palandöken Mountain range. There are several ski runs; the south ski run is 8 km long, the north ski run is intended for advanced skiers. The highest point of Mt. Palandöken, great Ejder at 3188m, can be reached to an altitude of 3100 metres by a chair lift. The International University Sports Federation (FISU) World Winter Games, 2011 Winter Universiade, will be held in Erzurum.

Cuisine
One specialty of Erzurum’s cuisine is Cağ Kebab. Although this kebab variety is of recent introduction outside its native region, it is rapidly attaining wide-spread popularity around Turkey.

Besides, Kadayif Dolmasi is an exquisite sugary. There is walnut in Kadayif Dolmasi.

Transportation
The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Erzurum is also the main railroad endpoint for the Eastern Anatolia region. Erzurum airport, also used by the Turkish Air Force, has runways that are the second longest in Turkey.

Notable natives
* Nene Hatun, female defender of Erzurum during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78
* Johannes Avetaranian, a descendent of Mohammed
* Karekin Pastermadjian, a leader of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and an ambassador of Armenia
* Orhun Ene, Turkish Basketball player
* Cemal Gürsel, the fourth president of Turkey
* Markos Vafiadis, leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), Prime Minister of Greece
* Arif Sağ, Turkish singer, bağlama virtuoso
* İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi, Turkish and Sufi philosopher and encyclopedist

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