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Şanlıurfa ilinin ingilizce tanıtımı

Şanlıurfa ilinin ingilizce tanıtımı
Şanlıurfa ([turkish]: urfa, [Arabic]: ar-Rûha) is a province in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. The city of Şanlıurfa is the capital of the province which bears its name. The population is 1,700,352 (2006 est).

Population in 1990 was 1,001,455; 551,124 in the district centers, 450,331 in rural villages. By 2000, the population of Şanlıurfa province had grown to 1,436,956 and that of Şanlıurfa city, 829,000.

Districts
Şanlıurfa province is divided into 11 districts (capital district in bold):

* Akçakale
* Birecik
* Bozova
* Ceylanpınar
* Halfeti
* Harran
* Hilvan
* Şanlıurfa
* Siverek
* Suruç
* Viranşehir

Geography
Area 18,584 km² (7,173 sq. miles), the largest province of Southeast Anatolia with:

* Adıyaman to the north;
* Syria to the south;
* Mardin and Diyarbakır to the east;
* Gaziantep to the west;

Şanlıurfa includes several major components of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (in Turkish Güneydogu Anadolu Projesi (GAP)) designed to:

* exploit the hydropower potential of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers;
* dramatically expand irrigation for agriculture; and
* develop the economy of the region.

This very large-scale, state-sponsored development project involved the damming, redirecting, hydroelectric tapping and other utilization of rivers in this broad, semi-arid region. (The rivers then flow into Syria and Iraq). The GAP project includes 22 dams, hundreds of miles of irrigation works.

Even before GAP, Şanlıurfa Province had the largest share of cultivated and cultivable land in the GAP region, due to its flatness and highly fertile, agricultural land. The Şanlıurfa and Harran Plains extend over an area of about 1,500 km² (579 sq. miles). Irrigating these plains is one of the most important components of GAP.

According to the 1990 census, Şanlıurfa Province contained 148,521 households, and the average household size was 6.74 persons. 71 % of household heads described their occupation as farming. In 1992, Şanlıurfa had the highest concentration of land ownership in Turkey, with a landless rate of 48%. While 5% of the families in the province owned 65% of the land, the vast majority (70%) owned only 10%.

Şanlıurfa’s average annual growth rate between 1985 and 1990 was 4.6%, considerably higher than both the national and regional averages.

Politics
The politics of Şanlıurfa Province are still widely shaped by the electoral adherence of a number of Zaza clans (aşiret). In particular, the districts along the Euphrates river have long been a power base for the traditional center-right DYP, formerly under Süleyman Demirel and Mrs. Tansu Çiller, and now under ex-chief of police Mr. Mehmet Ağar.

Turkey’s ruling AKP did come first in 2004 local elections with a comfortable 43.04 %, but the DYP, currently out of parliament, seems to be recovering under the new leadership of Mr. Ağar, who is known for his intimacy with the local feudal structures.

Much effort is deployed by DEHAP, campaigning on Kurdish-identity consciousness arguments, to attract clan votes, but this is complicated by polemics of the definitions of a Kurdish and a distinct Zaza identity. Several clans were at the forefront of the struggle against PKK terrorism in the 1980s and the 1990s. Still, DEHAP registered some success in 2004 local elections, coming second in the province with 16.95 %, rising from 12,06 % in 1999, with a faithful electorate in the two districts bordering Diyarbakır Province. DEHAP traditionally avoids the districts bordering Syria and populated by ethnic Arabs, where they did not even name candidates for the 2004 elections.

MHP, campaigning on Turkish-identity consciousness arguments, after having scored an exceptional 7,18 % in 1999, has in 2004 ebbed back to a more usual 2,97 %.

The center-left CHP usually obtains a modest share, slightly below 10%.

Approximately 10% of the province’s population is Turkish ,40% is Kurdish ,20% is Zaza and 30% is arab. There are tiny communities, a few thousand people, remaining of the once-widespread Assyrian and Yezidi culture.

Şanlıurfa
Şanlıurfa (often simply known as Ourfa, Urfa, Urhai or Ruha in Armenian, formerly Edessa or in Kurdish: Riha) is a city in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Şanlıurfa Province. Urfa is situated on a plain under big open skies, about eighty kilometres east of the Euphrates River. The climate features extremely hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. The urban population of Urfa is mainly Turkish while the outlying regions are mixed Kurdish and to a lesser degree Arabian.

Etymology
The city has been known by many names: Ուռհա, Urhai in Armenian, ܐܘܪܗܝ, Urhāy in Kurdish,Riha in Syriac, الروها, Ar-Ruha in Arabic, Ορρα, Orrha in Greek (also Ορροα, Orrhoa). For a while it was named Callirrhoe or Antiochia on the Callirhoe (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Καλλιρρόης). During Byzantine rule it was named Justinopolis. Although it is often best known by the name given it by the Seleucids, Εδεσσα, Edessa.

‘Şanlı’ means great, glorious, dignified in Turkish and Urfa was officially re-named Şanlıurfa (Urfa the Glorious) by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in 1984, in recognition of the local resistance in the Turkish War of Independence. The title was achieved following repeated requests by the city’s members of parliament, desirous to earn a title similar to those of neighbouring rival cities ‘Gazi’ (veteran) Antep and ‘Kahraman’ (Heroic) Maraş.

History
The history of Şanlıurfa is recorded from the 4th century BC, but may date back to the 8th century BC, when there is ample evidence for the surrounding sites at Duru, Harran and Nevali Cori.[1] It was one of several cities in the Euphrates-Tigris basin, the cradle of the Mesopotamian civilization. According to Turkish Muslim traditions Urfa (its name since Byzantine days) is the biblical city of Ur, due to its proximity to the biblical village of Harran. However, the Iraqis also claim the city of Ur in southern Iraq, as do many historians and archaeologists.

Urfa is also known as the birthplace of Abraham, commemorated by a mosque in the city and the birthplace of Job.
Urfa was conquered repeatedly throughout history, and has been dominated by many civilizations, including the Ebla, Akkadians, Sumerians, Babylonians, Hittites, Hurris, Armenians, Mittannis, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Macedonians (under Alexander the Great), Seleucids, Arameans, Osrhoenes, Romans, Sassanids, Byzantines, Crusaders.

The city of Edessa

Main article: Edessa, Mesopotamia

In the Byzantine period Edessa was a powerful regional centre, and a sophisticated city with churches, schools and monasteries.

[edit] The age of Islam

Islam first arrived around 639 C.E., when the Umayyad army conquered the region without a fight. Islam was then established permanently in Urfa by the empires of the Ayyubids, Seljuk and Ottoman Turks. In the aftermath of the First Crusade, the city was the center of the Crusader County of Edessa, until 1144, when it was again captured by the Turk Zengui, and most of its inhabitants were slaughtered together with the Latin archbishop (see Siege of Edessa).

Under the Ottomans Urfa was a centre of trade in cotton, leather, and jewellery. There were three Christian communities: Syrian, Armenian, and Latin. The last Syrian Christians left in 1924 and went to Aleppo (where they settled down in a place that later got called Hay al-Suryan “The Syriac Quarter”).

The First World War and after

In 1914 Urfa was estimated to have 75,000 inhabitants: 45,000 Turks, 25,000 Armenians and 5,000 Syrian Christians. There were also some Jews.

At the end of World War I, with the Ottoman Empire defeated, and European armies attempting to grab parts of Anatolia, first the British and then the French occupied Urfa. The British occupation of the city of Urfa started de facto on 7 March 1919 and officially as of 24 March 1919, and lasted till 30 October 1919. French forces took over the next day and their uncomfortable presence, met by outbursts of resistance, lasted until 11 April 1920, when they were defeated by local resistance forces (the new Turkish government in Ankara not being established, with the National Assembly declared on 23 April 1920.

The French retreat from the city of Urfa was conducted under an agreement reached between the occupying forces and the representatives of the local forces, commanded by Captain Ali Saip Bey assigned from Ankara. The withdrawal was meant to take place peacefully, but was disrupted by an ambush on the French by irregular forces at the Şebeke Pass on the way to Syria, leading to 296 casualties among the French, and more among the ambushers.

Şanlıurfa today
Modern Şanlıurfa presents stark contrasts between its old and new quarters. The old town is one of the most evocative and romantic in Turkey, with an ancient bazaar still visited by local people to buy fruit and vegetables, where traditionally dressed and scarfed Arab and Kurdish villagers arrive in the early morning to sell their produce. Much of the old town consists of traditional Middle Eastern houses built around courtyards, invisible from the dusty streets, many of which are impassable to motor vehicles. In the narrow streets of the bazaar people scurry to and fro carrying trays of food, which is eaten on newspapers spread on low tables in a corner of the little shops, many people drinking water from the same cup. This very oriental atmosphere is bewitching but below the surface parts of the old city are very poor indeed, with people still living in cave houses (built into the side of the rock).

Şanlıurfa’s newer districts meanwhile, are a sprawl of modern concrete apartment blocks, with many surprisingly tidy leafy avenues, containing modern restaurants, sports facilities and other amenities with air-conditioning, a refuge from the roasting summer heat.

Politics

Although a lot of residents are ethnically Kurdish and Kurdish is widely spoken, the local population is largely assimilated into Turkish society, and there is little political support for Kurdish nationalism. There is also a large Turkmen population, mainly consisting of the Baraks. Urfa is regarded in Turkish popular sentiment as being, second only to Konya, the most devout in Turkey and it is a stronghold of the governing Justice and Development Party.

The strength of political Islam is perhaps partly due to Urfa’s having an established population of ethnic Arabs, whose adherence to the traditions of Islam are naturally stronger than speakers of Turkish or Kurdish. (The traditional Middle-eastern hospitality is much in evidence, you will be offered tea by shopkeepers in Urfa). (Another Middle-eastern pastime, horse-racing is also popular in Urfa, where there is a hippodrome and a number of stud farms).

Food and drink
The cuisine is typical of the south-east; bread and meat are at the centre either kebab, doner or kavurma (fried meats or liver), with lots of use of aubergine, tomato and hot pepper, including the legendary local red pepper isot. Other dishes include: the spicy appetiser çiğ köfte (in Urfa even spicier than usual); the rich sweets such as the hot butter and syrup künefe or the walnut pastry sillik; the bitter Arabic-style coffee mırra and the coffee-like drink made from Terebinth menengiç kahvesi.

* (The legend of isot goes that during the French occupation in the 1920s the people of Urfa were at first not much concerned about the town being invaded or losing their homes and only began the resistance when they saw the French marching in the pepper fields. Now they even make isot flavoured ice-cream.

Urfa is not a huge metropolis and in many ways feels like a conservative country town (albeit a largish one). You will not be served an alcoholic drink with your dinner in Urfa and even the tea-gardens (the only public social venue that Urfa provides) are strictly segregated for families or single-men (not the case in western Turkey for example). One local tradition is the sıra gecesi, where groups of men gather at home, especially in winter evenings, to play lutes (ud or bağlama) and sing folk songs. However, today there are a couple of smart hotels where you can get a drink and with the new economic growth, plus the growing university, Urfa’s social infrastructure must surely develop soon.

Economy
In this roasting climate the plains of Urfa and Harran are hot and dry. However, since the early 1990s Şanlıurfa has prospered on the back of the Southeastern Anatolia Project, which has provided a reliable supply of water for local farmers and fostered and agricultural boom, including cotton production. This in turn is driving significant development of light industry in the city. Unemployment and poverty, while real problems, are on a smaller scale than in other eastern Turkish cities, and luxury automobiles can be seen on the streets of Urfa (incidentally one phenomenon is common to many Eastern cities: the newer smarter cars usually carry Istanbul or Ankara number-plates, not the local plate). The huge reservoir is also a spectacular sight, and now there are waterfront restaurants popping up.

Places of interest
* A traditional birthplace of the prophet Abraham – a cave to the south of the city
* Urfa castle – built in antiquity, the current walls were constructed by the Abbasids in 814AD.
* The legendary Pool of Sacred Fish (Balikligöl) where Abraham was thrown into the fire by Nimrod. The pool is in the courtyard of the mosque of Halil-ur-Rahman, built by the Ayyubids in 1211 and now surrounded by attractive gardens designed by architect Merih Karaaslan. The fish are not a pretty sight as they thrash about frantically devouring bread thrown by visitors. But the courtyard is very peaceful and it is said that if you see a white fish you will go to heaven.
* Rizvaniye Mosque – a more recent (1716) Ottoman mosque, adjoining the Balikligöl complex.
* Ayn Zeliha – another pool nearby, named after a lady follower of Abraham.
* The Great Mosque of Urfa was built in 1170, on the site of a Christian church the Arabs called the “red church,” probably incorporating some Roman masonry. Contemporary tradition at the site identifies the well of the mosque as that into which the towel or burial cloth (mendil) of Jesus was thrown (see Image of Edessa and Shroud of Turin). In the south wall of the medrese adjoining the mosque is the fountain of Firuz Bey (1781).
* Ruins of the ancient city walls.
* Eight Turkish baths built in the Ottoman period.
* The traditional Urfa houses were split into sections for family (harem) and visitors {selam). There is an example open to the public next to the post office in the district of Kara Meydan.
* The Temple of Nevali Cori – Neolithic settlement dating back to 8000BC, now buried under the waters behind the Atatürk Dam, but some artefacts relocated above the waterline.
* Gobeklitepe – The world’s oldest known stone temples (dated to before 9000 BC). Göbekli Tepe

Famous People
* Dr. Ahmet Esref Fakibaba – Current mayor in Sanliurfa.
* Nabi – 17th century Ottoman poet
* İbrahim Tatlıses – singer, Urfa’s own beloved working class hero, one of Turkey’s wealthiest music and TV stars. His oft-quoted remark on his hometown Was there an Oxford (university) in Urfa and we didn’t go to it?.
* Ferhat Göçer – popular singer
* Kazancı Bedih (b 1929 – d. 2004)- folk singer, known nationally for his conributions to the Eşkiya film soundtrack.
* Bekir Yıldız – Columnist in Hürriyet
* Bekir Coşkun – Columnist in Hürriyet
* UR – Band formed in the 1940s.
* Ahmet Özhan – Singer of Turkish Sufi music, and movie actor

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